VOC is the abbreviation of Volatile Organic Components. There are two main types of VOC. Biogenic VOC and Anthropogenic, by man made volatile organic components. These components have a low boiling point, which makes them evaporate quickly.
An example is acetone. This component boils at a much lower temperature than water. So it is very volatile and quickly transforms into gas. .
The health effects can vary widely, from absolutely no effect to respiratory irritation. Some components have a very strong impact on human health. Others contribute to climate change or deteriorate the ozone layer.
Indoor VOC concentrations are usually higher. Opening a window at home can help improve indoor air quality.
The industry is legally obliged to treat or limit their VOC emissions. Many different technologies exist. Examples are scrubbers, biofilters, thermal oxidizers, activated carbon or patented VW air cleaners using a unique combination of several methods.